Characteristics of Thermocouples

character-isticsgeneralcompositiontemperature rangesuitable
application
unsuitable
application
thermo-couples     
type Ebase metal thermocoupleNiCr -CuNi (nickel-chrome/copper-nickel) single wires made of non precious metalsEP-leg: 89-90% nickel, 9-9,5% chrome, 0,5% silicium and iron balance: C, Mn, Nb, Co
EN-leg: 55% copper, 45% nickel approx. 0,1%, co balt, iron and manganese
-200°C/+700°C 
  • in pure, oxidizing (air), or neutral atmosphere (inert gases)
  • high resistance against corrosion
  • small thermal conductivit
 
 
  • not sulphuric, reducing or alternately oxidizing, and reducing atmosphereu
  • do not apply in vacuum for a long time
 
type Jbase metal thermocoupleFe - CuNi (iron/copper-nickel) single wires made of non precious metalsJP-leg: 99,5 % iron, approx. 0,25 % manganese, approx. 0,12 % copper, balance: other impurities JN-leg: 55% copper, 45% nickel approx. 0,1%, cobalt, iron, and manganese-180°C/+700°C 
  • from 0-760°C in vacuum, oxidizing (air), reducing orinert atmosphere (inert gases)
 
 
  • temperatures below 0°C
  • sulphurous atmosphere above +500°C
  • above 760°C only with bigger wire diameters
 
type Kbase thermocoupleNiCr - NiAl (nickel-chrome/ nickel-aluminium) single wires made of non precious metalsKP-leg: 89-90% nickel, 9-9,5% chrome, 0,5 % silicium and iron balance: C, Mn, Nb, Co
KN-leg: 95-96% nickel, 1-1,5% silicium, 1-2,3 % aluminium, 1-3,2% manganese, 0,5% cobalt, balance: Fe, Cu, Pb
-270°C/+1372°C 
  • from 250°C-1260°C in pure, oxidizing (air) and neutralatmosphere (inert gases)
  • for higher temperatures bigger wire diameters are recommended
 
 
  • between 250°C up to 600°C not suitable for exact measurements with quick temperature changes
  • not appropriate for a longer time with high temperatures in vacuum
  • do not apply with high temperatures in sulfurous, reducing or alternately oxidizing, and reducing atmoshere without protection
  • do not use in atmosphere favourizing "green mould" 
 
type Lbase thermocouple Fe - CuNi (iron/copper-nickel) single wires made of non precious metalsLP-leg: 99,5 % iron, approx. 0,25 % manganese, approx.0,12 % copper, ballance: other impurities
LN-leg: 55% copper, 45% nickel, approx.0,1% cobalt, iron, and manganese
0°C/+900°C 
  • from 0°C-760°C in vacuum, oxidizing (air), reducing or inert atmosphere (inert gases)
  • above 500°C bigger wire diameters are recommended
 
 
  • Temperatures below 0°C
  • sulphurous atmosphere above +500°C
  • above 760°C only with bigger wire diameters
 
type Nbase thermocouple NiCrSi - NiSi (nickel-chrome-silicium/nickel-silicium-magnesium) single wires made of non precious metalsNP-leg: 84% nickel, 14-14,4 % chrome, 1,3-1,6% silicium, ballance (not more than 0,1%): Mn, Fe, C, Co
NN-leg: 95 % nickel, 4,2-4,6 % silicium, 0,5-1,5 % magnesium, ballance: Fe, Co, Mn, C, (altogether 0,1-0,3%
-270°C/+1300°C 
  • from 300°C-1260°C in pure, oxidizing (air) and neutral atmosphere (inert gases)
 
 
  •  do not use with high temperatures in sulphurous, reducing or alternately oxidizing, and reducing atmosphere without protection
  • do not use with high temperatures in vacuum
  • do not use in atmosphere faviourizing "green mould"
  • reducing atmosphere
 
type Rbase thermocouple Pt13%Rh - Pt (platinum 13% rhodium/ platinum) single wires made of platinum and platinum - rhodium alloyRP-leg: platinum with 99,99% purity with a rhodium alloy (purity 99,98%) 13±0,05% rhodium portion RN-leg: platinum with 99,99% purity-50°C/+1768,1°C
(melting point) recommended:
bis +1300°C
 
  • pure, oxidizing atmosphere (air), non aggresive (inert-) gases, and short-term in vacuum
  • above +1200°C type B more appropriate
 
 
  • reducing atmosphere umetal gases (for example plomb or zinc)
  • agressive vapours containing arsenic, phosphor or sulphur
  • do never use metal protecting tubes with higher temperatures
  • sensitive against impurities of impure metals
 
type Sbase thermocouple Pt10%Rh - Pt (platinum 10% Rhodium/ platinum) single wires made of platinum and platinum - rhodium alloySP-leg: platinum with 99,99% purity with a rhodium alloy (purity 99,98%) 10±0,05% rhodium portion SN-leg: platinum with 99,99% purity-50°C/+1768,1°C
(melting point) recommended:
bis +1300°C
 
  • pure, oxidizing atmospheres (air), non agressive (inert-) gases, and short-term in vacuum
  • above +1200°C type B more appropriate
 
 
  • reducing atmosphere umetal gases (for example plomb or zinc)
  • agressive vapours containing arsenic, phosphor, or sulphur
  • do never use metal protecting tubes with higher temperatures
  • sensitive against impurities of impure metals
 
type Bbase thermocouple (Pt 30%Rh - Pt 6%Rh platinum -0% rhodium/ platinum-6% rhodium) single wires made of platinum and platinum - rhodium alloyBP-leg: platinum with 99,99% purity with a rhodium alloy (purity 99,98%) 29,60±0,2% rhodium portion
BN-leg: platinum with 99,99% purity with a rhodium alloy (purity 99,98%) 6,12±0,02% rhodium portion
max. +1820°C
(melting point) ordinary up to
+1700°C
 
  • pure, oxidizing atmosphers
  • neutral atmospheres
  • vacuum
 
 
  • reducing atmosphere or such with agressive vapoursor impurities which react with metals of the platinum group, if it is not protected with a non metal protecting tube
 
type Tbase thermocouple Cu - CuNi (copper/copper-nickel) single wires made of non precious metalsTP-leg: 99,95% copper, 0,02-0,07% oxygen, 0,01% impurities
TN-leg: 55% copper, 45% nickelapprox. 0,1% cobalt, iron, and manganese
-270°C/+400°C 
  • from -200°C-370°C in vacuum, oxidizing (air), reducing or inert atmosphere (inert gases)
  • with higher temperatures bigger wire diameters are recommended
 
 
  • above +370°C not appropriate in a hydrogen atmosphere
  • not appropriate in radioactive environment
 
type UUnedelmetall-base thermocouple Cu - CuNi (copper/copper-nickel) single wires made of non precious metalsUP-leg: 99,95% copper, 0,02-0,07% oxygen, 0,01% impurities UN-leg:55% copper, 45% nickel approx. 0,1% cobalt, iron, and manganese0°C/+600°C
(+400°C)
 
  • from -200°C-370°C in vacuum, oxidizing (air), reducing or inert atmosphere (inert gases)
  • with higher temperatures bigger wire diameters are recommended
 
 
  • above +370°C not appropriate in a hydrogen atmosphere
  • not appropriate in radioactive environment
 

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